Human Factors in Risk-Based
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FAROS Project Public Documents and Summary of Deliverables

» Final public summary of the project: Portable Document Format (PDF)
» Public summary of the first project period: Portable Document Format (PDF)

» Project overview presentation: Portable Document Format (PDF) Overview (964KB)
» Project overview brochure: PDF suitable for double-sided printing at A4
Brochure (280KB)
» Presentations from the seminar at LR, March 2015: Portable Document Format (PDF) in a single .ZIP file
Zip archive of presentations

WP 1

» Deliverable D1.1: Quality Plan for Administrative Management

The quality plan for administrative management defines the project quality expectations and measures to meet them. In other words, this report outlines principles and measures behind the project quality control and administrative management. Those principles and measures are to be applied on a daily basis to ensure adherence to delivery schedules, high quality of project results, and efficient communication and cohesion within the consortium.

» Deliverable D3.1: Specifications of Cargo and Passenger Ships (PDF)

This report describes the process of selecting the baseline designs to be used over the course of the project. Firstly, we have defined the selection of ship types as described in the DoW, namely RoPax and Tanker ships. According to accident statistics, these ship categories are regarded to be the most safety critical.  That is, they clearly stand out when comparing historical data of operational and occupational accidents for different ship  types.  IMO  has  also  recognized  the  need  of  decreasing  the  associated  risk  of Tanker  and  Ropax  vessels  that  contribute  greatly  to  the  societal  and  environmental risks.  Further to defining the types of vessels to work with, the report outlines the various sub-categories of Tanker and RoPax  vessels that are nowadays prominent in the market. Identifying the latest market trends, in terms of vessel sizes and in terms of operations is deemed necessary in order to specify correctly the baseline designs. 

» Deliverable D3.2: Quantitative models of crew performance linked to ship motions

The main goal of the deliverable D3.2 was by carrying out a thorough literature analysis to make synthesis of knowledge, and find qualitative and quantitative models on the effect of ship motion as a global ship design factor GDF upon the human performance and failure modes. In addition to literature review ship crew experiences were gathered by interviewing mariners from these two ship types. Interview results showed that seasickness among experienced mariners is rare. Still, ship motions may interrupt demanding operations like maintenance on board the ship. Although, no clear quantitative models were found from literature to link ship motions and human failure on board, the limit values for ship motions have been reviewed and consolidated. The presence of the quantitative limits is a critical part of any quantitative model. In fact, it is a quantitative model of binary nature. If limits are exceeded human performance is affected. Otherwise human performance is unaffected. Models for motion induced sickness and motion induced interruption on board have been presented. These models at least illustrate ship motion conditions which clearly has influence on human performance on board.

» Deliverable D3.3: Quantitative models of crew performance linked to onboard noise and whole body vibration

The target of the work reported here was by carrying out a thorough literature analysis to make a synthesis of knowledge, and find qualitative and quantitative models on the effect of ship vibration and noise as a global ship design factors GDF upon the human performance and failure modes. Although, no quantitative models are proposed here to link noise and vibration and human failure on board, the limit values for both noise and vibration have been reviewed and consolidated. This is an important contribution, because no universally accepted method for rating the severity of noise or whole-body vibration on human performance could be found. Thus, the presence of the quantitative limits is a critical part of any quantitative model. In fact, it is a quantitative model of binary nature. If limits are exceeded human performance is affected. Otherwise human performance is unaffected.

» Deliverable D3.4: Quantitative models for crew peformance linked to Deck layouts, Equipments Arrangment and its Access

Deliverable D3.4 reports the findings of the literature review conducted in task 3.5 on the effect of the Deck Layout and Equipments Access and Arrangements (DLEAA) on the failure mode of the crew, i.e., fatigue, motor performance, cognitive performance and social performance. The deck layout was considered at a global level and local design features such as stairs, doors, width of corridors, etc. were outside the scope of this task. In terms of direct effects limited evidence in establishing the nature of effect of the deck layout on the crew performance exists and as such a mathematical model linking the effects of DLEAA to the crew performance could not be derived. It was also found that the deck layout can have an indirect effect on the crew performance by adding constraints when they perform their tasks. Some predominant features of a design which contribute to performance and risks to the personal safety of the crew were identified and methods to assess deck layouts in terms of these features are proposed. Finally, workshops with Ropax and Tanker operators were organised to gain some insight about their perception of the effect of noise, vibration, motion and the deck layout on their performance. A questionnaire was prepared to cover all these aspects and the results regarding the deck layout are presented in this deliverable.

» Deliverable D3.5: Validation results and amendments made

The objective of this report is to describe the theoretical frameworks that have emerged from the scientific literature that facilitate the development of the human performance component of risk models. This represents an evidence-based approach based on what is known about human performance when exposed to Global Design Factors (GDFs). This report covers: The challenges in defining the link between GDF exposure and human performance from the scientific literature; An overview of viable frameworks that have emerged from the scientific literature describing the effects of exposure to the GDFs to support human performance risk model development; An approach to human performance risk model validation in FAROS.

» Deliverable D3.6: Summarizing literature review

This document contains synthesis of research performed under ongoing EU-7FP project FAROS,  Human  Factors  in  Risk-Based  Ship  Design  Methodology,  WP3,  task  3.2 Synthesis of the effect of ship motions; task 3.3 Synthesis of the effect of vibrations; task 3.4 Synthesis of the effect of noise and task 3.5 Synthesis of the effect of deck layouts and equipment arrangement and access. In  the  course  of  the  performed  literature  review,  only  quantitative  models  of  binary nature were found. Such models set limit values for ship motions, noise and vibrations. According to the current design standards,  exceedance of these limits is supposed to have detrimental effect on human performance, which is not affected otherwise.

Deliverable (570KB)
» Deliverable D4.1: Specification for Virtual Reality Models Experiments (PDF) ** Updated **

Deliverable 4.1 has been designed to specify the experimental design for testing the effects of the deck layout on human performance of which failure may contribute to personal and societal risks. Experiments will be conducted on two virtual reality platforms with 24 Chief and 2nd Engineers. A set of naturalistic scenarios have been created, during which, Engineers' adherence to safe procedures will be assessed in light of variations in the deck layout in the engine room area. The dependence between certain deck layout features (e.g., the location of watertight doors, the passageway width in the engine room) and cognitive processes such as attention, decision making in view of trip/bump hazards and response times will be studied. All scenarios will be performed in full sleep conditions, with selected scenarios being repeated under a restricted sleep condition. The experiments will inform the development of risk models in WP4 and their integration in WP 5.

» Deliverable D4.2: Specification for Physical Experiments (PDF)

This report describes the specification for physical experiments conducted in vessel bridge simulators. Eye Tracking Technology (ETT) will be installed on the bridge simulators so that eye gaze can be constantly recorded whilst simulating realistic bridge operation scenarios. By measuring the effect of global design factors (GDFs, e.g. ship motions and noise) in carefully scripted scenarios, consistency of variable presentation can be achieved across experimental conditions and participants. General navigation performance of simulated ships will be predefined according to best practice. Measures described in the report include reaction time to respond to changes in target visibility, visual and audio alarms and external communications; correct identification of problem and appropriate action taken. Visual attention including gaze proportions and duration to collision threats, bridge windows and instruments during the course of the task and specifically in the decision making processes will be assessed. The experiments will span a three to four month calendar period on the basis of six four day blocks testing, with four mariners per block.
Deliverable (2MB)
» Deliverable D4.3: Results of virtual reality experiments

Six naturalistic virtual reality based experimental scenarios were designed around the engine room area of a virtual 200m RoPax vessel to investigate the influence on human performance of deck layout features including frequencies of watertight door crossings as a function of compartment layout and hazard proximity as a function of engine room passageway widths. Results indicated that reducing door crossing frequency may be associated with a lower incidence of watertight door non-closure, reduced unsafe crossings made when the door was not fully opened and reduced time on task in terms of navigation through the environment and operating doors. Reducing the frequency of door crossings during the design stages of arranging engine room compartments may therefore potentially reduce societal and personal injury risks. Results from hazard scenarios indicated that increasing engine room passageway widths in areas where hazardous objects are located may be likely to reduce proximity to and collisions with hazardous objects, thereby reducing personal risk.

» Deliverable D4.4: Coupling of equipment and results of physical experiments pecifications of Cargo and Passenger Ships (PDF)

Twelve naturalistic experimental bridge scenarios were designed with eight scenarios based on a 200m RoPax and four on a 354m Tanker. The aim was to investigate the influence of noise and motion on human performance and attention in full sleep and restricted sleep conditions. Results indicated that there were no significant effects of global design factors (GDFs, i.e. noise and motion) across Tanker scenarios in terms of human performance or self-report tiredness although there was some weak evidence of a negative impact on the closest point of approach between the experimental vessel and a collision threat vessel (CPA) in RoPax scenarios. Furthermore, in RoPax scenarios, CPAs were significantly wider in the sleep restricted compared to full sleep condition. This was particularly evident in the baseline condition and compromised slightly although non-significantly when a GDF was present. This may indicate the employment of a compensatory strategy when participants were tired, which paradoxically improved performance, which was most effective without the distraction of noise or motion.

» Deliverable D4.5: Risk models for crew injury, death and health deterioration on cargo ships and passenger ships

This deliverable describes the background, assumptions and implementation of the FAROS Generic Personal Injury Model (FGPIM) for personal injuries of crew exposed to the prescribed Global Design Factors (GDFs) of ship motion, noise, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) and Deck Layout, Equipment Arrangement and Access (DLEAA). The risk model presented covers personal injury for both large passenger (RoPax) and cargo (tanker) vessels. A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was selected for the FGPIM as the modelling of risk within FAROS required a probabilistic approach. The modelling technique selected needed to be able to accommodate the amount of uncertainty associated with the problem space. The FGPIM achieves its objective to provide a predictive measure of risk of personal injury due to exposure of operators to GDFs during vessel operations. As with all models, the FGPIM comes with a number of assumptions, exclusions and caveats for use; however the facility to probabilistically assess and compare vessel designs based on personal injury risk was achieved.

» Deliverable D4.6/4.7: Risk models for collision and grounding of cargo ships and passenger ships

This deliverable describes the background, assumptions and implementation of the FAROS Collision and Grounding Risk Model (FCGRM). The models assess the effect of Global Design Factors (GDFs) of ship motion, noise, whole body vibration (WBV) on the probability of an accident, namely ship-ship collision and ship grounding. The risk model presented addresses large passenger (RoPax) and cargo (tanker) vessels. A causal pathway was identified that linked the input (exposure to GDFs) with the unwanted outcomes (an accident) through the mediating agent of the crewmember. A workable approach for human performance risk modelling has emerged from the literature on the effects of exposure to ship motion, noise and vibration GDFs focussing on attention management. A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was selected for the FCGRM as the modelling of risk within FAROS required probabilistic approach. The FCGRM achieves its objective to provide a predictive measure of risk due to exposure of operators to GDFs during vessel operations. As with all models, the FCGRM comes with a number of assumptions, exclusions and caveats for use; however the facility to probabilistically assess and compare vessel designs based on risk was achieved.

» Deliverable D4.8: Risk models for aboard fires on cargo and passenger ships

The objectives of this FAROS deliverable were; To develop empirical models and scenarios for estimation of fire ignition probability in various spaces on passenger and cargo ships. Such models and scenarios should be applicable to ship concepts and be based on historical evidence and rigorous scientific methods; To incorporate human factors (e.g. human error) into the ignition models, where appropriate. The human factors must be linked to the following global design factors (GDFs) addressed in project FAROS (Noise, vibration, ship motions, deck layout, equipment arrangement and accessibility (DLEAA)). To that end, the report presents probabilistic ignition models, ignition scenarios and statistics for individual onboard spaces, with human factors being an integral part these developments. This allows calculating ignition probabilities for individual onboard spaces to be then combined with the consequence models so the fire risk of the entire vessel can be estimated. A procedure of estimating the overall fire risk has also been presented. The objectives of the deliverable have fully been achieved.

» Deliverable D5.1/5.2: Description of the Overall Risk Model

This document describes the process used to synthesise the risk models developed in this project into the overall risk model for RoPax and tankers ships, as well as describes how the results of virtual reality experiments and the experiments on the bridge simulators can be integrated in the project. The models estimate societal risks and personal risk (aka individual risk) onboard. The societal risk is estimated subject to serious emergency scenarios, whereas the personal risk addresses hazards in normal operation. A joint application of these models to a given ship provides the overall or holistic level of risk to life. The model is used in search of effective risk control options by addressing specific design and operational hazards.
Deliverable (2MB)
» Deliverable D5.3: Benchmarking Results of Overall Risk Models

This document describes the exercise undertaken to benchmark the overall risk model presented in FAROS report D5.1/D5.2 [4] for unwanted outcomes of collision, grounding crew personal injury and fire in terms of potential loss of life (PLL) related to exposure of the ship crew to the FAROS Global Design Factors (GDFs) of ship motion, noise, whole body vibration (WBV) and deck layout, equipment arrangement and access (DLEAA). The benchmarking shows that most risk level estimates produced by the personal and collision risk models required adjustment to be in line with published statistics and acceptance criteria. The grounding risk model tends to overestimate and the fire risk model tends to underestimate the risk level. In addition, the collision risk model for tankers tends to slightly underestimate the risk level. For these models correcting multipliers are suggested. With the multipliers applied, the overall risk model is seen to be a reasonable approximation to the fatality risk on board due to personal hazard, collision, grounding or fire.
Deliverable (1MB)
» Deliverable D5.4: Description of Integrated Design and Design Evaluation Tools

This report addresses integration of design and design evaluation software tools. These tools—some developed earlier in the project (e.g. risk models)—have been integrated to facilitate multi-disciplinary performance assessment of tanker and RoPax ships of which designs  are  to  be  optimised. The report specifically comprises descriptions of the integrated process for tanker and RoPax ships, lists and describes tools integrated, and points out difficulties faced. 
In addition to the description of the integrated process, a short explanation of its application is given, specifically focusing on design exploration and optimisation processes and their outcomes.   

» Deliverable D6.1: Description of Parameterisation of Cargo Ship Models

This deliverable describes work undertaken under Task 6.1, “Development of parametric cargo ship  models”.  The  objective  of  Task  6.1  was  to  model  two  cargo  ships;  a  Very  Large  Crude Carrier  (VLCC)  and  an  Aframax  tanker. The ships were modelled using the commercial Paramarine software tool, licenced by QinetiQ. The UCL-originated Design Building Block approach, which has been implemented as a module in Paramarine, was used to undertake the modelling. The models were parameterised on four main levels: Main ship dimensions; local hull features (e.g. fullness of the bow); ship internal features (primary subdivision and general arrangement); specific  major  equipment  arrangements.

» Deliverable D6.2: Description of Parameterisation of Passenger Ship Models

The  report  describes  an  adopted  methodology  for  design  parameterisation  of  RoPax ships,  specifically  focusing  on  the  hull  shape  and  general  arrangement.  This parameterisation methodology is applied to two RoPax baseline designs selected earlier in the project (public report D3.1).  
The  parametric  ship  models  will  be  then  optimised  in  subsequent  tasks  of  WP6  with respect to multi-disciplinary performance. As the risk assessment will also be applied to design  modifications,  such  a  risk-based  optimisation  process  will  converge  to  design trade-offs between risk, economic, and environmental performance.

» Deliverable D6.3: Description of Uncertainty in Design and Operational Parameters

This report describes uncertainty in exogenous factors, such as fuel price, supply and demand and regulatory regimes. This uncertainty will be integrated in the economic evaluation process for new design concepts. This evaluation will apply the Real Options Valuation (ROV) method, more advanced than the static Net Present Value (NPV) analysis, in that it can capture the value of flexibility to adjust to market conditions.
Deliverable (2.8MB)
» Deliverable D6.4: Results of Results of preliminary exploration of cargo and passenger ship concepts

This deliverable contains results of the preliminary exploration of cargo and passenger ship concepts outlined in D3.1 [5] in detail. The processes that facilitated the achievement of the presented results were reported in the preceding project reports.  Multiple  design  variations  for  tanker  and  RoPax  ships  have  been  produced  and  their multi-disciplinary performance assessed. The alternative design variations were ranked using the criteria of Pareto efficiency and analysed in terms risk, economic performance and environmental impact. 
Deliverable (7.5MB)
» Deliverable D6.5: Results of detailed exploration of cargo ship concepts

This deliverable reports the results of the detailed exploration of cargo ship concepts. The  original  design  exploration  and  optimisation  process  as  described  in  the  FAROS DoW,  used  a  two–stage  process.  However,  the  approach  eventually  adopted  for  the cargo ships was quite different from that planned as the range of meaningful numerical variants that could be generated for the cargo ship designs was too limited to be used to develop  reliable  models  that  were  suitable  for  numerical  optimisation  processes. Analysis of the 120 design variants, reported in Deliverable D6.4, indicated that some improvements  over  the  baseline  designs  in  risk,  economic  and  environmental performance  were  possible,  but  also  that  many  of  the  investigated  variants  produced worse levels of performance.  

» Deliverable D7.1: Optimised VR Ship Models and Results of Experiments 

This report describes Virtual Reality (VR) models of ship machinery spaces used for experiments with mariners. This deliverable also describes the outcomes of the experiments.
Deliverable (3MB)
» Deliverable D7.2: Results of Physical Experiments

This report describes four sets of experiments conducted with volunteers in a bridge simulator, under differing conditions of noise and task difficulty. The results are outlined with the outcomes being that noise does not have a significant effect, but that task difficulty has some effect on mariner performance in the simulations.
Deliverable (2.2MB)
» Deliverable D7.3: Validating FAROS risk models. Framework and application

This report describes the validation framework applied to the FAROS risk models. Different approaches to validation are discussed and adopted. As  the  results  of  validation  tests it was concluded  that  the  risk  models developed are plausible enough to serve as a basis for further reflections, allowing for the differentiation between various ship designs. Thus the risk models developed can be used  at  the  initial  stage  of  ship  design.
Deliverable (1.7MB)
» Deliverable D8.1: Dissemination Plan

This report outlines the planned dissemination activities expected to take place during the course of the project. Dissemination is very important for a research project and several related activities are envisaged with a view to presenting the project, its scope and its results to stakeholders within the wider maritime industry. These include shipowners, regulators, ship designers, academics, mariners, etc. The range of planned activities is varied and will include: publication of technical papers in journals and conferences; organisation of public workshops for two-way interaction with stakeholders; a dedicated project website with public areas providing information and updates about the project; brochures that can be distributed at appropriate events; submission of project findings and recommendations to the IMO.

» Deliverable D8.2: Proceedings of the First Public Workshop (PDF)
Deliverable (5.5MB)
» Deliverable D8.3: Draft Exploitation Plan

The report outlines an exploitation plan of research output in project FAROS. The report has achieved two specific objectives: Identified individual exploitation plans by each project participant; Summarised individual exploitation plans of those project participants who represent the target group of the project. The summary represents a coherent action plan indicating the principal exploitation directions to be pursued. The report is a Draft Exploitation Plan (DEP) issued at the Mid-Term (M18) of the project. The Final Exploitation Plan will be issued in M25, updating the DEP with exploitation results and new developments in the project.

» Deliverable D8.6: FAROS presentations given to the third public workshop
Deliverable (8.1MB)

Last Updated: 2016-Feb-02